Looks like the stress of moving my Betta home for the week and our house being so cold (Usually around 62 middle of the day) has caused an Ich infection.
This is a nasty little parasite that grows as white spots on the fish for 7-10 days, then drop off and divide into hundreds of daughter cells, which then reinfect fish. Luckily, since I only have one fish, that isn't as much of a concern.
I've raised the temperature of the tank up to 86 and added some sea salt, which is supposed to stress the parasite and reduce it. Hopefully the salt doesn't kill anything else in my tank... My snail has already been acting stressed.